The study characterizes the process-related solid wastes produced during manufacture of industrial chemicals, SIC Group 281. Thirty three chemicals were selected that: possess significant resource value, pose a difficult solid waste disposal problem, and/or have markedly deleterious properties, e.g., toxicity. The selected chemicals composed 40% of 1971 group output and an estimated 95% of the group's solid waste. Fifteen of the chemicals are undergoing process substitutions; in every case the newer process generates less solid waste. Most of wastes are of intrinsically low value, so resource recovery is seldom economic. Inorganics account for over 90% of total disposal cost, due to large waste volume from ore-related processes, such as alumina and phosphoric acid. Organics appear to pose little disposal problem. Elimination of water discharge doubles the disposal cost of the 33 chemicals.