Treating large volumes of contaminated soil at Superfund sites is costly. These factors have led the U.S. EPA's Superfund Program to consider in situ chemical treatment as an alternative technology for treatment of contaminated soil. Oxidation, reduction, neutralization, hydrolysis, dehalogenation, and UV/photolysis are chemical processes currently used for above-ground treatment. Temperature, physical and chemical characteristics of soil, are some operating parameters that control the effectiveness of these processes. Improvements in mixing treatment materials in soil, and methods for recovering unreacted material reaction products, are needed to allow wider application of these treatments in situ. Excalibur catalytic ozone technology, Exxon and Rio Linda cyanide destruction, and Trinity ultrasonic detoxification are innovative technologies that are being considered.