Emerging issues in watershed management include the need to assess the effects of management activities on the time scale of several cutting rotations (>100 yrs) and on spatial scales that consider factors impinging from beyond watershed boundaries. Long-range analysis reveals strong, long-lasting effects of landscape patterns created by today's activities. However, the ecological consequences of these patterns may be invisible when the analysis horizon spans only a few decades. Land use decisions within watersheds are increasingly influenced by broader social, economic, and biological factors (e.g., wildlife management plans, such as the Northern Spotted Owl Conservation Strategy). Global climate change poses yet greater potential to alter watershed management schemes. Consequently, improved social and technical tools are needed for planning watershed management of multiple resources in an increasingly uncertain world.