||Accumulation, Fractionation and Release of Oil by the Intertidal Clam 'Macoma balthica'.
Clement, L. E. ;
Stekoll, M. S. ;
Shaw, D. G. ;
||Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Inst. of Marine Science.;Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Water pollution ;
Prudhoe Bay ;
Aliphatic hydrocarbons ;
Aromatic hydrocarbons ;
Oil pollution ;
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The bivalve mollusc Macoma balthica accumulated hydrocarbons during 180 days of continuous exposure to Prudhoe Bay crude oil in seawater dispersions with nominal concentrations of 0.03, 0.3, and 3.0 mg 1-1. The mollusc's ability to concentrate oil from sea-water increased with decreasing oil-in-water concentration. Decreases in oil burden began after 30 to 120 days (depending on the oil concentration) and continued for at least 60 days after exposure to oil ceased. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were fractionated in markedly different ways by the bivalve. Branched and cyclic aliphatics in the molecular weight-range dodecane through hexadecane were preferentially retained over straight chain and their higher homologs. Larger and more substituted aromatic compounds were selectively concentrated. There appeared to be no selective concentration of aromatic sulphur compounds.