Recent reports have suggested that environmental chemicals may be associated with endocrine alterations in people, wildlife, and experimental animals. Pharmacological investigations as well as natural poisoning episodes have led to the association between exogenous chemicals and alterations in multiple hormonal systems. Persistent environmental contaminants such as dioxins and PCBs have been shown to modulate the activities of several different hormones. The unborn child or the neonate may be at special risk from these chemicals because of rapid growth and development, in addition to enhanced exposure. Because most exposure to these persistent chemicals is via food, changes in dietary habits and/or reduced contamination of the food supply may be required.