Recently, the Chesapeake Bay Program, the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) and the scientific community have begun to place a greater emphasis on the role phosphorus plays in nonpoint source pollution. This increased awareness of the risks of excess phosphorus in the soil profile and its relationship to water quality has led to NRCS guidance and Environmental Protection Agency-proposed regulations. These proposed EPA regulations would require operators to implement nutrient control practices for nitrogen and phosphorus in their farm nutrient management plans for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Nutrient control practices for nitrogen and phosphorus will likely become a requirement for farms that meet certain federal criteria. Also, other federal or state programs may require new practices with respect to phosphorus. For farming operations that use only commercial fertilizers, this shift should not be burdensome. However, due to the ratio of phosphorus to nitrogen in animal wastes and biosolids, phosphorus-based nutrient management planning may be a more arduous task for livestock and poultry operations as well as for permitted sewage sludge applications.