Geological Environment as a Basement for the Formation of Ecosystems -- Contemporary Conceptions of the Geological Environment: Basic Features, Structure and System of Links -- The Geological Environment and Ecosystems -- Influence of Modern Geological Processes on Evolution of Ecosystems -- Geological and Geochemical Influences on Estuarine Ecosystems -- The Role of Tectonic Processes in the Interaction Between Geology and Ecosystems -- Karst and Ecosystems -- Environmental Impacts of the Extractive Industries -- Geoenvironmental Problems of Mineral Resources Development -- Groundwater as a Component of the Environment -- Groundwater Use and Public Health -- Methods of Groundwater Pollution Risk Estimation for Ecosystem Sustainability -- Anthropogenic Development, Geology and Ecosystems -- Urbanisation and the Geoenvironment -- Assessment of Effects of Discharged Waters Upon Ecosystems -- Impact of Technogenic Disasters on Ecogeological Processes -- Exogenic Geological Processes As a Landform-Shaping Factor -- Environmental Aspects of Groundwater Pollution -- Medical Problems Related to Geology and Ecosystem Interaction -- Human Health and Ecosystems -- Medical and Ecological Significance of the Water Factor -- Prediction of the Geoenvironmental Evolution of Ecosystems -- Prediction of Exogenic Geological Processes -- Prediction of Endogenic Geological Processes -- Mathematical Models of the Interaction Between the Geological and Ecological Environment -- The Influence of Climate Change on Geology and Ecosystems Interaction -- Newest Ecogeological Processes Within River Basins -- Ecosystem Monitoring under Desertification within Interior Sea-Lakes and Deltas -- Ecosystems Forming on the Fresh River Deposition -- Main Directions for Ecogeological Studies -- Ecogeological Mapping -- Monitoring Geological Processes as Part of General Environment Monitoring -- Geology and High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal - a Brief Overview -- Monitoring Endogenic Geological Processes -- Permafrost Monitoring -- Ecological Education of Geology Students. Geology and Ecosystems examines the relationship between biological communities of the Earth and objects of inorganic nature of the geological environment. Rational and sustainable development of society requires an ever-growing exploitation of natural resources, among which mineral and water resources play a dominant role. During recent decades, we have observed a high rate of human invasion into our geological structure, mainly through extraction of minerals, hydrocarbons, groundwater, etc. These impacts together with day-to-day human activity, cause destruction to the Earth's surface and near-surface environment and upset the balance of sustainable development. In turn, due to increasing anthropogenic impact, the geological components which serve as the basic substrate and foundations for all ecosystems, are changed from their natural original state and the relationship between the 'living tissue and inert nature' (i.e. relationship between the biosphere and the geosphere) is significantly affected. This book includes an analysis of the relationship between the different geological, hydrochemical, hydrogeological and engineering-geological processes and the processes within surface ecosystems. The analysis of specific interactions between the lithosphere and biosphere provides an integrated concept of the role of the geological environment in the evolution of the biosphere. The practical significance of the book is reflected by the analysis of modern engineering activity associated with the mining of minerals, excessive groundwater withdrawal, disposal of industrial and domestic wastes (including radioactive wastes) and their impacts on all components of the environment. Geology and Ecosystems includes a scientific approach to the complex monitoring of the environment under different natural and anthropogenic conditions, including the monitoring of permafrost regions. An important part of the book is the analysis of the "water factor" impact on ecosystems and sustainable development. Influences of intensive groundwater extraction on river flow, vegetation and land subsidence are also considered. This book is intended as a professional update for environmental scientists, analysts, environmental health care professionals, geologists, ecologists, hydrologists, and other professionals with an interest in the Earth's environments and with environmental protection.