1. Complex ecological data sets -- 2. Matrix algebra: a summary -- 3. Dimensional analysis in ecology -- 4. Multidimensional quantitative data -- 5. Multidimensional semiquantitative data -- 6. Multidimensional qualitative data -- 7. Ecological resemblance -- 8. Cluster analysis -- 9. Ordination in reduced space -- 10. Interpretation of ecological structures -- 11. Canonical analysis -- 12. Ecological data series -- 13. Spatial analysis. The book describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry and others. Compared to the first edition of Numerical Ecology, this second edition includes three new chapters, dealing with the analysis of semiquantitative data, canonical analysis and spatial analysis. New sections have been added to almost all other chapters. There are sections listing available computer programs and packages at the end of several chapters. As in the previous English and French editions, there are numerous examples from the ecological literature, and the choice of methods is facilitated by several synoptic tables.