This report describes the analyses conducted to generate emission rates and energy rates representing exhaust emissions and energy consumption for heavy-duty vehicles in MOVES2014. Heavy-duty vehicles in MOVES are defined as any vehicle with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) above 8,500 lbs. This report discusses the development of emission rates for total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). MOVES reports PM emissions in terms of elemental carbon (EC) and the remaining non-elemental carbon PM (nonEC). This report covers the derivation of EC/PM fractions used to estimate elemental carbon (EC), and the remaining non-elemental carbon PM (nonEC). From HC emissions, MOVES produces other estimates of organic gas emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total organic gases (TOG). From VOC emission rates and fuel
properties, MOVES estimates individual toxic compounds such as formaldehyde and benzene. The derivation of the factors used to compute aggregate measures of organic gases and individual toxic emissions are available in the Speciation and Toxics MOVES Reports. MOVES estimates PM emission rates according to 18 subspecies beyond elemental carbon, such as organic carbon, sulfate and nitrate, through the use of speciation profiles as documented in the Speciation Report. This report also documents the energy consumption rates for heavy-duty vehicles. For heavy-duty diesel vehicles, the energy rates were developed based on a carbon balance method using the measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), CO and total hydrocarbons (HC), from the same tests and measurements used to estimate the MOVES CO and HC emission rates. We developed emission and energy rates for heavy-duty vehicles powered by both diesel and gasoline fuels, as well as compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, although emissions from the heavy-duty sector predominantly come from diesel vehicles. As a result, the majority of the data analyzed were from diesel vehicles.