Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog


OLS Field Name OLS Field Data
Main Title Seasonal trends in blood lead levels in Milwaukee.
Author Pawel, D. J. ; Pawel, David John. ; Foster, C. ; Cox, D. C.
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Foster, C.
Cox, D. C.
CORP Author QuanTech, Inc., Rosslyn, VA.;Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics.
Publisher U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics,
Year Published 1996
Report Number EPA/747/R-95/010; EPA-68-D3-0004
Stock Number PB2001-105306
Subjects Lead--Toxicology--Wisconsin--Milwaukee. ; Lead poisoning in children--Wisconsin--Milwaukee.
Additional Subjects Children ; Lead poisoning ; Blood chemical analysis ; Seasonal variations ; Program effectiveness ; Interventions ; Environmental exposure ; Environmental factors ; Health screening ; Dusts ; Health surveys ; Statistical analysis ; Public health ; Urban areas ; Trend analysis ; Blood lead levels ; Milwaukee(Wisconsin)
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
NTIS  PB2001-105306 Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy. NTIS 01/01/1988
Collation [102] pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
Most studies on the effectiveness of interventions for reducing children's blood lead levels (PbB) have not distinguished declines in PbB due to program effectiveness from seasonal and age-related fluctuations in PbB. In this report, seasonal fluctuations and age effects in 1990-94 blood lead levels for a northern urban environment are studied, using data from 13,476 children screened for blood lead in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The purpose was to determine whether there were seasonal and age trends, and if so, to estimate the magnitude of the trends. These estimates can then be used to help interpret studies with blood lead monitoring data, especially studies on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce blood lead levels. The Milwaukee data showed sizeable seasonal and age trends in Milwaukee children's PbB levels. Blood lead levels were about 40% higher in the summer than the winter, and about 15-20% higher at ages two to three years than at ages less than one year or ages five to seven years. Statistical methodology was developed to account for these fluctuations, so that the effectiveness of intervention programs may be quantified. These estimates are being used in studies of the effectiveness of lead interventions in Milwaukee.
"EPA 747-R-95-010." EPA work assignment manager, Samuel Brown. EPA contract 68-D3-0004. Microfiche.