Forest Landscape Restoration in Context -- Overview of Forest Restoration Strategies and Terms -- Impact of Forest Loss and Degradation on Biodiversity -- The Impacts of Degradation and Forest Loss on Human Well-Being and Its Social and Political Relevance for Restoration -- Restoring Forest Landscapes in the Face of Climate Change -- Restoration as a Strategy to Contribute to Ecoregion Visions -- Why Do We Need to Consider Restoration in a Landscape Context? -- Addressing Trade-Offs in Forest Landscape Restoration -- An Attempt to Develop a Framework for Restoration Planning -- Assessing and Addressing Threats in Restoration Programmes -- Perverse Policy Incentives -- Land Ownership and Forest Restoration -- Challenges for Forest Landscape Restoration Based on WWF's Experience to Date -- Goals and Targets of Forest Landscape Restoration -- Identifying and Using Reference Landscapes for Restoration -- Mapping and Modelling as Tools to Set Targets, Identify Opportunities, and Measure Progress -- Policy Interventions for Forest Landscape Restoration -- Negotiations and Conflict Management -- Practical Interventions that Will Support Restoration in Broad-Scale Conservation Based on WWF Experiences -- Monitoring Forest Restoration Projects in the Context of an Adaptive Management Cycle -- Monitoring and Evaluating Forest Restoration Success -- Opportunities for Long-Term Financing of Forest Restoration in Landscapes -- Payment for Environmental Services and Restoration -- Carbon Knowledge Projects and Forest Landscape Restoration -- Marketing and Communications Opportunities: How to Promote and Market Forest Landscape Restoration -- Restoring Quality in Existing Native Forest Landscapes -- Restoring Soil and Ecosystem Processes -- Active Restoration of Boreal Forest Habitats for Target Species -- Restoration of Deadwood as a Critical Microhabitat in Forest Landscapes -- Restoration of Protected Area Values -- Using Nontimber Forest Products for Restoring Environmental, Social, and Economic Functions -- An Historical Account of Fuelwood Restoration Efforts -- Restoring Water Quality and Quantity -- Restoring Landscapes for Traditional Cultural Values -- Overview of Technical Approaches to Restoring Tree Cover at the Site Level -- Stimulating Natural Regeneration -- Managing and Directing Natural Succession -- Selecting Tree Species for Plantation -- Developing Firebreaks -- Agroforestry as a Tool for Restoring Forest Landscapes -- Restoring Dry Tropical Forests -- Restoring Tropical Moist Broad-Leaf Forests -- Restoring Tropical Montane Forests -- Restoring Floodplain Forests -- Restoring Mediterranean Forests -- Restoring Temperate Forests -- Forest Landscape Restoration After Fires -- Restoring Forests After Violent Storms -- Managing the Risk of Invasive Alien Species in Restoration -- First Steps in Erosion Control -- Restoring Forests After Land Abandonment -- Restoring Overlogged Tropical Forests -- Opencast Mining Reclamation -- The Role of Commercial Plantations in Forest Landscape Restoration -- Attempting to Restore Biodiversity in Even-Aged Plantations -- Best Practices for Industrial Plantations -- What Has WWF Learned About Restoration at an Ecoregional Scale? -- Local Participation, Livelihood Needs, and Institutional Arrangements: Three Keys to Sustainable Rehabilitation of Degraded Tropical Forest Lands -- A Way Forward: Working Together Toward a Vision for Restored Forest Landscapes. The importance of restoration continues to grow, and this book integrates the restoration of forest functions into landscape conservation plans. The global conservation organization WWF has made forest landscape restoration a key topic and priority for its environmental work. Due to the WWF's extensive global reach, and together with its many partners and counterparts, it has acquired a significant level of experience on the topic of forest restoration at large scales. This book represents the collective body of knowledge and experience of WWF and its many partners--which is collected here for the first time and which will be invaluable to all of those working in the field. This guide will serve as a first stop for practitioners and researchers in any organization or region and as a key reference on the subject. Along with concise, practical information for a variety of specific systems and issues, it gives many suggestions for further research. From the Foreword by Chief Anyaoku, President, WWF International: "Is it a sign of the times that the Nobel committee chose to award the Nobel Peace prize to Wangari Maathai for having planted 30 million trees? We believe so. . . .The 21st Century will be a time of forest restoration."