The ability of TNB, DNB and tetryl, to form abducts in rats was investigated using 14C labeled compounds. Our results showed that all three test chemicals(TNB, DNB and tetryl) were able to form abducts with blood proteins and tissue DNA. The optimum time required for maximum adduct formation for TNB, DNB and tetryl varied. For example, TNB abducts (blood proteins and DNA) were maximum at 48 h. Peak levels of DNB abducts (blood proteins) were detected at 8 h and maximum DNB-DNA abducts levels reached by 24 hours. In the case of tetryl the maximum blood protein adduct levels were observed at 24 h, while DNA adducts peaked at 48 h after exposure. At the end of ten weeks, significant amount (10-50%) of radioactivity was intact in the DNA of TNB or tetryl treated rat liver, kidney, and spleen. 3,5-dinitroaniline was identified from TNB treated rat liver DNA and picric and picramic acids from tetryl treated rat liver and kidney DNA. This suggests that these are the adducts of DNA and released during hydrolysis. In contrast, 3-nitroaniline was identified in hemoglobin hydrolysate as well as in albumin soup from rats treated with DNB. Hence, protein and DNA adducts appear to have promise as dose monitors for nitroaromatic munitions and their by-products.