The Bert La Du Memorial Lecture -- Paraoxonases: An Historical Perspective -- PONs and Atherosclerosis -- Glucose Inactivates Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and Displaces it from High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) to a Free PON1 Form -- Paraoxonase-1 and Cardiovascular Disease -- Oxidative Stress & Antioxidants and PON1 in Health and Disease -- D-4F Increases Paraoxonase 1 Activity in HDL -- Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), A Junction Between the Metabolisms of Homocysteine and Lipids -- The Role of PON2 and PON3 in Atherosclerosis and Related Traits -- Paraoxonase 1 and Postprandial Lipemia -- PON1 Genotypes and Coronary Heart Disease -- PON1 Structure -- Human Paraoxonase I: A Potential Bioscavenger of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents -- Stabilisation of Active Form of Natural Human PON1 Requires HPBP -- PONs in Disease other than Atherosclerosis -- Paraoxonase-1 in Chronic Liver Diseases, Neurological Diseases and HIV Infection -- Age-Related Alterations in PON1 -- PON and Toxicology -- Paraoxonase (PON1) and Organophosphate Toxicity -- Implications of Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) Activity and Polymorphisms on Biochemical and Clinical Outcomes in Workers Exposed to Pesticides -- PON-Genetics and Regulation -- Transcriptional Regulation of the Paraoxonase Genes -- Effect of Lipid Lowering Medications on PON1 -- The Functional Consequences of Polymorphisms in the Human PON1 Gene -- Dietary Modulation of Paraoxonase-1 Activity and Concentration in Humans -- PONs Biochemistry -- PONs' Natural Substrates - The Key for their Physiological Roles -- Paraoxonases, Quorum Sensing, And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. Research into the paraoxonase (PON) multigene family has really only blossomed in the last 10 years. Before this time only PON1 was known and research was restricted to toxicologists investigating the metabolism of organophosphate insecticides and nerve gases and a few "mad" scientists searching for "natural" substrates. Since this time two new members PON2 and PON3 have been discovered, all 3 PONs have been shown to act as antioxidants and the PON family has taken centre stage as major players in the development of a wide variety of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatism, Alzheimer and many more while remaining important in determining organophosphate toxicity. In September 2006 the 2nd International Conference on Paraoxonases took place in Hajdúszoboszló, Hungary, bringing together the world's foremost experts in the field. The current book is a distillation of the plenary lectures which took place at the meeting, resulting in a comprehensive up to date, state of the art review of current paraoxonase research.