The Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that states and tribes restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nations waters (33 USC SC 1251.101). States and tribes, pursuant to section 303 of the CWA are to adopt water quality standards necessary to protect fish, shellfish, and wildlife while providing for recreation in and on the waters whenever possible. Section 303(d) of the CWA establishes requirements for states and tribes to identify and prioritize water bodies that are water quality limited (i.e., water bodies that do not meet water quality standards). States and tribes must periodically publish a priority list of impaired waters, currently every two years. For waters identified on this list, states and tribes must develop a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for the pollutants, set at a level to achieve water quality standards. This document addresses the water bodies in the Big Wood River Subbasin that have been placed on what is known as the 303(d) list. This subbasin assessment and TMDL analysis has been developed to comply with Idahos TMDL schedule. This assessment describes the physical, biological, and cultural setting; water quality status; pollutant sources; and recent pollution control actions in the Big Wood River Subbasin located in the southcentral portion of Idaho. The first part of this document, the subbasin assessment, is an important first step in leading to the TMDL. The starting point for this assessment was Idahos current 303(d) list of water quality limited water bodies. Twenty (20) segments of the Big Wood River Subbasin were listed on this list. The subbasin assessment portion of this document examines the current status of 303(d) listed waters, and defines the extent of impairment and causes of water quality limitation throughout the subbasin. The loading analysis quantifies pollutant sources and allocates responsibility for load reductions needed to return listed waters to a condition of meeting water quality standards.