Air emissions and water effluents from true in-situ oil shale retorting were physically, chemically and biologically characterized by sampling of Geokinetics Retort No. 17, a pilot-scale unit which produced 30 barrels of crude shale oil per day during testing from July 16 to July 26, 1979. The potential pollution sources tested were the retort off-gases before and after mist elimination, exhaust from thermal incineration of the demister outlet gases, fugitive gas seepage through the retort surface and around well castings, retort water after oil separation, and evaporation pond water. The three stack gas streams were analyzed for ammonia, arsine, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, particulate matter, and trace elements. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide were quantified in the fugitive emissions samples. Water quality parameters, organic priority pollutants, and trace elements were measured in the two water samples. Selected air and water pollution samples were tested for biological activity, using the Ames mutagenicity assay, the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) clonal toxicity assay, and the rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) cytotoxicity assay.