The document evaluates and assesses scientific information on the health and welfare effects associated with exposure to various concentrations of sulfur oxides and particulate matter in ambient air. The literature through 1980-81 has been reviewed thoroughly for information relevant to air quality criteria, although the document is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to sulfur oxides and particulate matter. An attempt has been made to identify the major discrepancies in our current knowledge and understanding of the effects of these pollutants. Although this document is principally concerned with the health and welfare effects of sulfur oxides and particulate matter, other scientific data are presented and evaluated in order to provide a better understanding of these pollutants in the environment. To this end, the document includes chapters that discuss the chemistry and physics of the pollutants; analytical techniques; sources; and types of emissions; environmental concentrations and exposure levels; atmospheric chemistry and dispersion modeling; acidic deposition; effects on vegetation; effects on visibility, climate, and materials; and respiratory, physiological, toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological aspects of human exposure.