In the United States, more than 35 million people live within 100 meters of a major roadway. A growing body of literature suggests that adverse health effects are associated with populations living near major roadways. According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates from 2006, highway sources contribute 22% of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 36% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 54% of carbon monoxide (CO) of all anthropogenic emissions. Despite cleaner fuels and improved onboard emission control technology, the growth of vehicular miles traveled and traffic congestion in urban areas may further exacerbate the impact of roadway emissions on air quality and human health. The intent of this review is to provide a convenient compendium of existing operational modeling techniques and to provide guidance for researchers interested in improving the accuracy of air quality modeling for near-road applications.