Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog
RECORD NUMBER: 4 OF 38
|OLS Field Name||OLS Field Data|
|Main Title||Ammonia toxicity /|
|Author||Willingham, William T.|
|CORP Author||Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, Colo. Control Technology Section.|
|Publisher||Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII, Control Technology Branch, Water Division ; For sale by the National Technical Information Service,|
|Stock Number||PB-256 447|
|Additional Subjects||Water pollution ; Ammonia ; Aquatic biology ; Toxicity ; Fishes ; pH ; Temperature ; Exposure ; Oxygen ; Dissolved gases ; Alkalinity ; Carbon dioxide ; Ions ; Sodium ; Concentration(Composition) ; Heat stress ; Salinity ; Water pollution effects(Animals) ; Dissolved oxygen|
|Collation||103 pages in various pagings : illustrations ; 28 cm.|
Several authors have reported that the harmful effects of ammonia are primarily related to the pH and temperature of the water because only the un-ionized ammonia is toxic. The un-ionized fraction increases with rising pH values and with rising temperature. Other factors such as dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, free carbon dioxide, sodium ions, total dissolved solids, prior exposure to ammonia, physical stress, general physiological status, and the presence of other additive toxins or other mitigating parameters will have a great affect on the overall toxicity of ammonia to aquatic organisms. The actual reported toxic concentrations of ammonia vary from 0.16 mg/l to 16.5 mg/l NH3-N.
Issued Feb. 1976. Includes bibliographical references (pages B-2-B-4). Microfiche.