The National Transportation Safety Board, at the request of the Senate Appropriations Committee, has just completed a safety effectiveness evaluation of Federal and State enforcement efforts in the area of bulk hazardous materials transportation by commercial motor vehicle. As a result of this evaluation, the Board found that there are several improvements that should be made to the enforcement activities of the Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety (BMCS) in the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). In its evaluation, the Board staff interviewed BMCS officials in the headquarters office and in eight of the nine FHWA Regions. In addition, the Board staff interviewed State enforcement officials in 24 States, including 3 of the 4 States participating in the BMCS "Commercial Motor Carrier Safety Inspection and Weighing Demonstration Program." Because the BMCS enforcement of the motor vehicle-related Federal Hazardous Materials Regulations is not separate from its enforcement of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, the Board found that, in general, the same deficiencies undermine the effectiveness of both efforts. Thus, the major findings of the Board concerning BMCS enforcement apply equally to enforcement of the motor vehicle-related Federal Hazardous Materials Regulations and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.