Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog
RECORD NUMBER: 201 OF 234
|OLS Field Name||OLS Field Data|
|Main Title||Summary of recent technical information concerning thermal discharges into Lake Michigan /|
|Publisher||Argonne National Laboratory,|
|Report Number||EPA 905-R-72-102; 902R72001|
|Stock Number||PB-214 261|
|Subjects||Thermal pollution of rivers, lakes, etc.--Michigan, Lake. ; Lake Michigan.|
|Additional Subjects||Lake Michigan--Water pollution ; Electric power plants--Water pollution ; Heat ; Temperature gradients ; Fresh water biology ; Ecology ; Industrial wastes ; Fresh water fishes ; Plankton ; Benthos ; Plumes ; Hydraulic models ; Thermal power plants ; Cooling water ; Nuclear power plants ; Thermal pollution ; Ambient lake conditions|
|Collation||vi, 131 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm.|
This report, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region V, through an interagency agreement with the Atomic Energy Commission, is a review of new technical information, relevant to the environmental effects of thermal discharges into Lake Michigan, which is not reflected in the existing record of the Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference. Between September 28 and October 2, 1970, the Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference held a workshop in Chicago, Illinois, to consider proposals for regulating waste heat discharges to Lake Michigan. At this workshop, testimony was presented by staff of the U.S. Department of Interior, the power industry, citizens, and various State and Federal agencies. A five-volume record of the proceedings was published. Subsequent meetings of the enforcement conference were held on March 23-25, 1971. A three-volume record of these proceedings was also published. Though the records of the proceedings of the Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference contain a substantial amount of technical data relative to the environmental effects of the use of Lake Michigan water for cooling, subsequent studies have produced technical results not previously presented to the Conference. This document, therefore, is to provide a summary of these subsequent studies. The intent is that it be used at the forthcoming Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference, to be reconvened on September 19, 1972, as an aid in the discussions and deliberations related to thermal discharges. The primary sources of information for this report included testimony from local, state, and federal pollution-control agencies; reports from the Great Lakes Fisheries Laboratory of the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife; reports from universities performing research on Lake Michigan; permits issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; technical and environmental reports prepared by or for power companies discharging into Lake Michigan; and environmental impact statements prepared by the Atomic Energy Commission. Results from studies conducted on bodies of water other than Lake Michigan and reports from the open literature were cited if they were judged to be particularly relevant and as time permitted. The report is structured to discuss separately the physical and biological aspects of thermal discharges. The section on Ambient Lake Conditions describes preoperational field studies, thermal-bar measurements, and general lakewide phenomena that are pertinent to power-plant siting considerations. The ambient lake conditions are the reference points from which all environmental effects must be measured. The section on Studies Related to Thermal Plumes describes field measurements of the physical and biological characteristics of thermal discharges, summarizes mathematical modeling techniques, and describes some laboratory tests on the biological effects of heated water. The section on Intake and Discharge Effects summarizes operational data from most of the power plants on Lake Michigan, describes the intake and outfall designs of the five major nuclear facilities sited on the lake, and discusses biological effects observed at various power plants. The feasibility of using closed-cycle cooling systems instead of once-through cooling was discussed at previous Enforcement Conference hearings. There is little disagreement that the general concept of closed-cycle cooling is feasible, with the possible exception of certain site-specific problems. The section on Alternative Cooling Methods describes several analyses of closed-cycle cooling systems as reported in some of the Environmental Impact Statements and summarizes available data on estimated costs of original installations and backfitting. Chemical discharges from both fossil-fired and nuclear power plants are tabulated in the section on Chemical Inputs. This section also describes chemicals used in condensers, process-water systems, cooling towers, and ponds and reports on recent experiments to study the biological effects of various concentrations of these chemicals. The intent was to prepare this report on an intermediate technical level suitable for the layman as well as the scientist. The review of any individual reference is necessarily brief and is primarily to call attention to the source if information in greater depth is required. We have specifically refrained from drawing conclusions from the material reported here to minimize the influence of our particular beliefs. The conclusions cited in this review are abstracted from the original documents. Where the conclusions from similar studies are signifi- cantly different, these differences are identified without discussion.
August 1972. Includes bibliographical references (pages 121-131).
Ambient lake conditions -- Physical characteristics -- Lake temperatures -- Inshore currents -- Thermal bar -- Biological Characteristics -- Fish -- Plankton -- Periphyton -- Benthos -- Studies related to thermal plumes -- Physical characteristics -- Field data -- Mathematical modeling -- Hydraulic modeling -- Effects on shoreline ice -- Biological characteristics -- Waukegan Power Plant -- Blount Street Plant (Lake Monona) -- Michigan City Station -- Bailly Plant -- J.H. Campbell Plant -- Miscellaneous studies -- Intake and discharge effects -- Inventory of designs -- Kewaunee Plant cooling system -- Point Beach Plant cooling system -- Zion Station cooling system -- D.C. Cook Plant cooling system -- Palisades Plant cooling system -- Biological effects -- Alternative cooling methods -- Environmental impact -- Davis-Besse Station -- Enrico Fermi Plant -- Zion Station -- Point Beach Station -- Kewaunee Plant -- Bailly Station -- D.C. Cook Plant -- Palisades Station -- Natural-draft-tower operating observations -- Drift observations -- Theoretical predictions -- Feasibility -- Monetary costs -- Pulliam Plant -- Kewaunee Plant -- Point Beach Plant -- Zion Station -- Waukegan and State Line Plants -- Michigan City Plant -- Bailly Nuclear Plant -- D.C. Cook Plant -- Palisades Plant -- General Observations -- Chemical inputs -- Summary of power-plant effluents -- Standards applicable to power plants -- Chemicals for removal of organic deposits in condensers and process-water systems -- Chemicals for treatment of water-steam system -- Chemicals for treatment of cooling towers and ponds -- References.