Complementarity of Species Distributions as a Tool for Prioritising Conservation Actions in Africa: Testing the Efficiency of Using Coarse-Scale Distribution Data -- Scorpion Diversity and Distribution in Southern Africa: Pattern and Process -- Madagascar as a Model Region for the Study of Tempo and Pattern in Adaptive Radiations -- Commemorating Martin Eisentraut (1902-1994) - Important Explorer of Tropical African Vertebrates -- Earwigs (Dermaptera: Insects) of Kenya - Checklist and Species New to Kenya -- Morphometric Differentiation in the East African Grasshopper Genus Afrophlaeoba JAGO, 1983 (Orthoptera: Acrididae) -- Katydids and Crickets (Orthoptera: Ensifera) of the Kakamega Forest Reserve, Western Kenya -- Ecology and Diversity of Canopy Associated Ceratocanthidae (Insecta: Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) in An Afrotropical Rainforest -- Human Influence on the Dung Fauna in Afrotropical Grasslands (Insecta: Coleoptera) -- Genuine Africans or Tertiary Immigrants? - The Genus Hydropsyche in the Afrotropical Region (Insecta, Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) -- Fruit-Feeding Butterfly Communities of Forest 'Islands' in Ghana: Survey Completeness and Correlates of Spatial Diversity -- Biogeography, Diversity and Ecology of Sawflies in the Afromontane Region (Insecta: Symphyta) -- Diversity, Distribution Patterns and Endemism of Southern African Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) -- Does Grazing Influence Bee Diversity? -- The Pholcid Spiders of Africa (Araneae: Pholcidae): State of Knowledge and Directions for Future Research -- West African Fish Diversity - Distribution Patterns and Possible Conclusions for Conservation Strategies -- Distribution and Population Density of the Black-Eared Malagasy Poison Frog, mantella Milotympanum Staniszewski, 1996 (Amphibia: Mantellidae) -- Amphibian and Reptile Diversity in the Southern Udzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve, South-Eastern Tanzania -- Interpreting Morphological and Molecular Data on Indian Ocean Giant Tortoises -- Molecular Systematics of African Colubroidea (Squamata: Serpentes) -- Phylogeny and Biogeography of Malagasy Dwarf Geckos, Lygodactylus Gray, 1864: Preliminary Data from Mitochondrial DNA Sequences (Squamata: Gekkonidae) -- Variability in a Common Species: The Lygodactylus Capensis Complex from Southern and Eastern Africa (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) -- Migration Within and Out of Africa: Identifying Knowledge Gaps by Datamining the Global Register of Migratory Species -- Avifaunal Responses to Landscape-Scale Habitat Fragmentation in the Littoral Forests of South-Eastern Madagascar -- Use of Satellite Telemetry and Remote Sensing Data to Identify Important Habitats of Migratory Birds (Ciconia Ciconia (Linnaeus 1758)) -- Conservation Priorities and Geographical Variation in Flycatchers (Aves: Platysteiridae) in the Democratic Republic of Congo -- Rare Weavers (Aves: Ploceidae): Are Some Ploceus Species Hybrids? -- Historical Determinants of Mammal Diversity in Africa: Evolution of Mammalian Body Mass Distribution in Africa and South America During Neogene and Quarternary Times -- Diversity and Abundance of Diurnal Primates and Forest Antelopes in Relation to Habitat Quality: A Case Study from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania -- Small Mammal Diversity and Reproduction Along a Transect in Namibia (Biota S 07) -- Possible Karyological Affinities of Small Mammals from North of the Ethiopian Plateau -- Geographic Variation in the West African Scaly-Tailed Squirrel anomalurus Pelii (Schlegel and Müller, 1845) and Description of a New Subspecies (Rodentia: Anomaluridae) -- Middle Ear Ossicles as a Diagnostic Trait in African Mole-Rats (Rodentia: Bathyergidae) -- Community Analysis of Muridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) Diversity in Guinea: A Special Emphasis on Mastomys Species and Lassa Fever Distributions -- Effects of Different Land Use on the Parasite Burden and MHC Constitution Of two Rodent Species (Gerbillurus Paeba, Rhabdomys Pumilio) in the Southern Kalahari Desert -- An Assessment of the Systematics of the Genus Desmomys Thomas, 1910 (Rodentia: Muridae) Using Mitochondrial DNA Sequences -- Integrative Taxonomy and Phylogenetic Systematics of the Genets (Carnivora, Viverridae, Genetta): A New Classification of the Most Speciose Carnivoran Genus in Africa -- How to Digitize Large Insect Collections - Preliminary Results of the DIG Project -- Monitoring Landcover Changes of the Niger Inland Delta Ecosystem (Mali) by Means of Envisat-Meris Data -- Is Geodiversity Correlated to Biodiversity? A Case Study of the Relationship Between Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Resources and Tree Diversity in a Western Kenyan Rainforest -- Decline of Woody Species in the Sahel -- Diversity Over Time and Space in Enset Landraces (Ensete Ventricosum) in Ethiopia. In May 2004, the Alexander Koenig Zoological Research Museum hosted the Fifth International Symposium on Tropical Biology. This series was established at the ZFMK in the early 1980s, and has variably focused on systematics and ecology of tropical organisms, with an emphasis on Africa. Previous volumes are those edited by Schuchmann (1985), Peters and Hutterer (1990), Ulrich (1997), and Rheinwald (2000). The symposium in 2004 was organized by the Entomology Department under the direction of Michael Schmitt. The intention was to focus on Africa rather than on a particular taxon, and to highlight biodiversity at all levels ranging from molecules to ecosystems. This focus was timely partly because of the currently running BIOTA Africa programmes (BIOdiversity Monitoring Transect Analysis in Africa). BIOTA is an interdisciplinary research project focusing on sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity in Africa (http://www.biote-africa.de). Session titles were Biogeography and Speciation Processes, Phylogenetic Patterns and Systematics, Diversity Declines and Conservation, and Applied Biodiversity Informatics. Each session was opened by an invited speaker, and all together 77 lectures and 59 posters were presented. There were over 200 participants and it was gratifying to us to meet colleagues from 26 nations, including Russia, Ukraine, Japan, USA, and ten African countries. We thank all participants for their valuable contributions.