Preface. Acknowledgements. Nanomaterials and Nanostructured Adsorbents. Solvothermal Synthesis of Photocatalic TiO2 Nanoparticles capable of Killing Escherichia coli -- Carbon Nanotubes: Biorisks and Biodefence -- Toxicology of Nano-Objects - Nanoparticles, Nanostructures and Nanophases -- Carbon Adsorbents with Adjustable Porous Structure Formed in the Chemical Dehydrohalogenation of Halogenated Polymers -- Application of Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Techniques for Characterizing High Surface Area Carbons -- Methods of Detection and Analysis. Sensors for Breath Analysis: An Advanced Approach to Express and Monitorning of Human Diseases -- Express Instrumental Diagnostics of Diseases Caused by Retroviral Infections -- Nanostructured Silicon and Its Applications as the Transducer in Immune Biosensors -- New Method of Testing Blood Cells in Native Smears in Reflected Light -- The Crystallografic Method of Identification of Microorganisms -- Biological and Chemical Methods of Protection. Drug Delivery Systems and Their Potential for Use in Battlefield Situations -- Biological Menas against Bio-Terrorism: Phage Therapy and Prophylaxis against Pathogenic Bacteria -- Enzyme Stabilization in Nanostructured Materials, for Use in Organophophorus Nerve Agent Detoxification and Prophylaxis -- The Investigation of Relationship between the Poly-Morphism in Exon 5 of Glutathione S-Transferase P1 (GSTP1) Gene and Breast Cancer -- The New Biotechnological Medication "FarGALS" and Its Antimicrobial Properties -- Design and adsorption Cartridges for Personal Protection from Toxic Gases -- Using Silver Nanoparticles as an Antimicrobial Agent -- Immobilization and Controlled Release of Bioactive Substances from Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogels -- Medical Treatment. Critical Care Organization during Mass Hospitalization -- Enterosgel - a Novel Organosilicon Enterosorbent with a Wide Range of Medical Applications -- Rehabilitation Methods for Exposure to Heavy Metals under Environmental Conditions -- Clinical Signs of the Development of Acute Hepatocellular Insufficiency and Ways to Prevent it, in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis after Porto-Systemic Shunting -- Applications of Innovative Technologies in Diagnostics and Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis -- Novel Skin Substitute Biomaterial to Treat Full-Thickness Wounds in a Burns Emergency Care -- New Anti-Microbial Treatment of Purulent-Inflammatory Lung Diseases in Patients Supported by Long-Term Artificial Ventilation of Lungs -- Oxidant and Antioxidant Status of Patients with Chronic Leg Ulcer before and After Low Intensity Laser Therapy -- Extracorporeal Methods of Treatment. Advances and Problems of Biospecific Hemosorption -- Deliganding Carbonic Adsorbents for Simultaneous Removal of Protein-Bound Toxins, Bacterial Toxins and Inflammatory Cytokines -- Plasmapheresis and Laser Therapy in Complex Treatment of Myasthenia and Their Influence on Erythrocytes and Endothelium -- Efficacy of Modified Hemosorbents Used for Treatments of Patients with Multi-Organ Insufficiency. This book focuses on defence against biological warfare with an emphasis on applications of modern technologies and advanced materials in detection, health protection and medical treatment of the population. Specific topics include high-throughput sensitive detection methods, advanced nanostructured materials and techniques for external and internal protection of human health, as well as extracorporeal methods, adsorptive materials and bacteriophages decontaminating the human organism, and neutralising incorporated CBRN agents. The contributions describe recent developments in the field of biodefence aimed at protecting population against terrorism and terror related events. Broader approaches to reducing the impact of environmental pollution on human health and improving efficiency of medical treatment of patients with viral infections, poisoning and organ failure are also discussed.