Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog
RECORD NUMBER: 373 OF 1357
|OLS Field Name||OLS Field Data|
|Main Title||Health effects of land application of municipal sludge /|
|Author||Kowal, Norman Edward.|
|CORP Author||Health Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.|
|Publisher||Health Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,|
|Subjects||Environmental health--United States. ; Sewage disposal in the ground--United States. ; Sewage sludge.|
|Additional Subjects||Waste water ; Earth fills ; Exposure ; Epidemiology ; Humans ; Concentration(Composition) ; Infectious diseases ; Soils ; Contamination ; Toxic substances ; Health effects ; Water pollution effects(Humans) ; Land fills ; Health hazards|
|Collation||32 pages ; 28 cm|
The paper is primarily a summary of two previously published detailed reports on the health effects of land treatment (Kowal 1982, 1985), and the reader is encouraged to seek the supporting data and arguments for the generalizations made here. In those reports the types and levels commonly found in municipal wastewater and the efficiency of preapplication treatment (usually stabilization pond) are briefly reviewed for each agent of concern. A discussion of the levels, behavior, and survival of the agent in the medium or route of potential human exposure, i.e. aerosols, surface soil and plants, subsurface soil and groundwater, and animals, follows as appropriate. For the pathogens, infective dose, risk of infection, and epidemiology are then briefly reviewed. Finally, conclusions and research needs are presented.
"January 1987." "EPA/600/1-85-015." Microfiche.