Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs, are a class of brominated flame retardants that, like other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been found in humans, wildlife, and biota worldwide. Unlike other POPs, however, the key routes of human exposure are thought to be from their use in household consumer products, and their presence in house dust, and not from dietary routes. The exposure of Americans to PBDEs was systematically evaluated in this study. The production and lifecycle of the formulated PBDE products were examined. Literature on their fate and presence in the environment was reviewed. Exposure media data on brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners were combined with estimates of adult, childhood, and infant intake factors to estimate a total intake of PBDEs for these receptors. The exposure pathways evaluated included food and water ingestion, inhalation, and ingestion of and dermal contact with house dust. For the adult intakes, a body burden of PBDEs was simulated using a simple pharmacokinetic model. The predicted body burdens were compared with representative adult profiles of PBDEs in blood and milk.