Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog


OLS Field Name OLS Field Data
Main Title Emerging Health Concerns Related to Water Treatment.
Author M. J. Plewa ; E. D. Wagner
CORP Author Midwest Technology Assistance Center (MTAC), Champaign, Illinois.; Illinois Univ. at Urbana-Champaign.; Illinois State Water Survey Div., Champaign.; Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Region V.
Year Published 2008
Report Number MTAC-TR08-05; EPA-X829218-01
Stock Number PB2009-103946
Additional Subjects Potable water ; Public water systems ; Disinfectants ; Health effects ; Environmental protection ; Research and development ; Illinois ; Chlorine ; Nitrogen ; Cytotoxicity ; Research projects ; Water treatment ; Microorganisms ; US EPA ; Disinfection byproducts
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
NTIS  PB2009-103946 Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy. NTIS 05/12/2010
Collation 36p
Drinking water utilities provide an exceedingly important public health service through their generation of high quality, safe and palatable tap water. The disinfection of drinking water in public facilities primarily employs chemical disinfectants such as chlorine, chloramines, ozone and chlorine dioxide. These disinfectants are oxidants that convert naturally occurring and synthetic organic material, bromide, and iodide in the raw water into chemical disinfection byproducts (DBPs). DBPs are an unintended consequence and were first discovered over 30 years ago. Each disinfection method generates a different spectrum and distribution of DBPs; to date over 600 DBPs have been identified. While reducing the public health risk of acute infection by waterborne pathogens, the unintended generation of DBPs poses a chronic health risk. DBPs represent an important class of environmentally hazardous chemicals that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and carry long-term human health implications. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that individuals who consume chlorinated drinking water have an elevated risk of cancer. DBPs have been linked to reproductive and developmental effects, including the induction of spontaneous abortions in humans. Although chlorine has been used for over 100 years in the United States as a water disinfectant, the majority of DBPs present in drinking water have yet to be chemically characterized. With only approximately 30 percent of the total organic halide identified to specific DBP chemical classes, and a small fraction of these evaluated for their biological and toxicological effects, it is clear that a great deal of work remains in the characterization of DBPs.