The impacts of nanotechnology are increasingly evident in all areas of science and technology, including the field of environmental studies and treatment. Experts anticipate the development and implementation of environmentally beneficial nanotechnologies in the categories of sensing and detecting, pollution prevention, and treatment and remediation. Of the three, the category of treatment and remediation has seemingly experienced the most growth in recent years. In terms of site remediation, the development and deployment of nanotechnology for contaminant destruction has already taken place. Nanoscale iron particles and the subsequent derivatives (bimetallic iron particles and emulsified iron) represent a viable commercially available nanotechnology for remediation. Currently, over 15 academic and commercial field scale tests involving nano-iron particles are underway or have reached completion. Many more sites have scheduled field studies and consequently the number of vendors supplying this product continues to grow. In addition, a multitude of nanotechnology applications for site remediation and wastewater treatment are currently in the research and development stages. From dendritic polymers to functionalized ceramics, the technologies poised to impact the treatment field are considerably diverse.