The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is making seven targeted regulatory changes to the national primary drinking water regulations (NPDWR) for lead and copper. The intended effect of these regulatory changes is to strengthen the implementation of the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) in the areas of monitoring, customer awareness, and lead service line replacement. Some of these changes clarify the intent of the LCR for provisions that have generated questions. Other provisions reconsider LCR requirements in light of recent experiences regarding implementation of the rule. These changes are expected to ensure and enhance more effective protection of public health through the reduction of lead exposure. The changes included in today's action do not affect the lead or copper maximum contaminant level goals, the Action Levels, or the basic regulatory requirements. This Economic Analysis describes the estimates of annual costs for the seven regulatory changes to utilities and States, including costs associated with administrative, monitoring, sampling, reporting, and public notification activities. One-time, upfront costs of rule review and rule implementation are also estimated. There are two types of annual costs that may result from the rule changes--direct and indirect.