||Environmental Law Inst., Washington, DC.; Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.; Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
This report introduces a framework that can be used to think about and account for costs required to implement institutional controls (ICs). Institutional controls are used at contaminated sites that are cleaned up to standards that require restrictions on the future use of the site. Specifically, ICs are used to ensure that assumptions about the restricted use of the site on which the cleanup is predicated are upheld and that the appropriate uses are maintained in order to prevent future human exposure to remaining contaminants. Institutional controls can be used to limit what kind of structure is built on a piece of property, to limit the type of facility that can be built or how it may be used, to limit the use of groundwater, and to restrict excavation or other specific activities that might cause human exposure or harm part of the engineered remedy. By way of example, ICs may include state and local government land use controls (such as zoning restrictions), property-law based controls (such as restrictive covenants), government controls (such as certificates of completion), and informational devices (such as advisories).