To combat the growing threat of global climate change from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the Kyoto Protocol includes project-based mitigation efforts to achieve large-scale and cost-effective emissions reductions. The Protocol requires real and measurable reductions in emissions that are additional to any that would occur in the absence of a certified project activity. Monitoring, evaluation, reporting, verification and certification of these projects are activities that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sees as important. EPA has initiated a three-phase process in developing usable guidelines on monitoring, evaluation, reporting, verification and certification (MERVC). In the first phase, an overview of MERVC issues was prepared by E. Vine and J. Sathaye, 1997. The Monitoring, Evaluation, Reporting, and Verification of Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Discussion of Issues and Methodologies and Review of Existing Protocols and Guidelines.