The report assesses the potential of air pollution from nitrobenzene. Nitrobenzene is a pale yellow oily liquid with a characteristic bitter almond odor and a low volatility. In 1971, 690 million pounds were produced by seven companies, and yearly production increases of 7 to 10 percent are predicted. Bacteria will degrade nitrobenzene in the liquid effluent stream if it is presented to them in a sufficiently diluted state. As shown by the downwind model, the recommended TLV could be reached in 25 hours if no control device were employed. Nitrobenzene can cause chronic toxicity in the industrial environment. There are three routes of uptake: inhalation of vapor, cutaneous absorption of the vapor or liquid, and oral ingestion. There are four sites of physiological reactions to nitrobenzene: blood, nervous system, peripheral metabolism and skin. The immediate toxic effect is methemoglobinemia which is reversible at a constant rate. At higher levels of nitrobenzene accumulates in the cerebellum, affecting the central nervous system. The ingestion of alcohol greatly augments nitrobenzene's toxic effects. Teratogenic and carcinogenic roles for nitrobenzene have been predicted, but there is a need for further testing in this area.