Several Federal regulations have been promulgated and many more are expected for limiting the concentrations of contaminants in drinking water. As these regulations are developed, Best Available Technology (BAT) has to be stipulated for meeting these regulations. Various treatment technologies have proven effective in controlling many drinking water contaminants of concern. For instance, one of the most promising methods for halogenated by-product control includes removal of precursors before disinfection. Research studies in Florida indicate that membranes are effective in removing halogenated by-product precursors from certain waters. There are also other regulatory concerns where membranes can provide adequate treatment. Membranes can be used for removing inorganics and radionuclides. Also, with appropriate pilot-scale and field scale data, membranes could possibly be considered BAT for meeting the Surface Water Treatment Rule requirements.