In light of the large-scale changes occuring within the bromine-based chemicals industry, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency commissioned a study to investigate the potential for adverse environmental effects that might result from such changes. In particular, EPA was interested in learning if the existing excess capacity to produce bromine and ethylene dibromide has or would stimulate the industry to seek alternative uses for bromine that could result in new environmental concerns. To accomplish the objectives of the study, an extensive literature review was conducted, followed by personal contacts with knowledgeable individuals and by independent analysis. Our efforts were concentrated on present and future markets, exposure potential, and risk assessment. The study indicates, in general, the environmental effects resulting from changes in the industry are relatively minor or that the potential problems have already been recognized and are being addressed by EPA. However, several areas do require further attention: the brominated flame retardants industry; the effect of methyl bromide on stratospheric ozone; the lack of carcinogenicity and food-residue data for methyl bromide; the environmental effects of bromine chloride utilization; chemicals used for petroleum production; vinyl bromide risk assessment; and thallium bromide optical fibers.