Experimental design -- Anatomy of an experiment -- Anatomy of a scientific paper -- Evaluation of a scientific article -- Experimental design -- Statistical inference, analysis of variance, and post hoc analysis -- Statistical inference -- Analysis of variance (ANOVA) -- Post hoc analysis -- Statistical tests -- Parametric tests -- Special ANOVA designs and analyses -- Popular post hoc multiple comparison tests -- Nonparametric tests. Selection of statistical tests -- Research design problems and their critiques -- Introduction to design problems -- Research design problems and critiques. This textbook takes a unique approach to explaining and demonstrating how to use and interpret statistics for the physiological, medical, and life sciences. The first third of the book presents an integrated overview and introduction to experimental design and statistical inference. The rest of the book provides an extensively cross-referenced set of 100 brief critiques of sample case studies embodying all the most common statistical errors or design problems found in the biological literature. These specific cases are effective for teaching the principles of biostatistics. The examples are drawn primarily from biomedicine, yet the book is also valuable to psychologists, social scientists, environmental scientists, ecologists, and any discipline employing statistics.