Development of MEA for Cells, Acute Slices, and Cultured Tissues -- A History of MEA Development -- On Micro-Electrode Array Revival: Its Development, Sophistication of Recording, and Stimulation -- Multi-Electrode Arrays: Enhancing Traditional Methods and Enabling Network Physiology -- Development of 3-D Multi-Electrode Arrays for Use with Acute Tissue Slices -- Electrophysiological Monitoring of Hippocampal Slice Cultures Using MEA on Porous Membrane -- Mapping Spatio-Temporal Electrophysiological Activity in Hippocampal Slices with Conformal Planar Multi-Electrode Arrays -- Pattern Technologies for Structuring Neuronal Networks on MEAs -- MEA Applications: Dissociated Cell Cultures -- Emerging Histiotypic Properties of Cultured Neuronal Networks -- Closing the Loop: Stimulation Feedback Systems for Embodied MEA Cultures -- Emerging Network Activity in Dissociated Cultures of Neocortex: Novel Electrophysiological Protocols and Mathematical Modeling -- Analysis of Cardiac Myocyte Activity Dynamics with Micro-Electrode Arrays -- MEA Applications: Acute/Cultured Slices -- A Hippocampal-Based Biosensor for Neurotoxins Detection and Classification Using a Novel Short-Term Plasticity Quantification Method -- The Retinasensor: An In Vitro Tool to Study Drug Effects on Retinal Signaling -- Chronic Alcohol Effects on Hippocampal Neuronal Networks -- Applications of Multi-Electrode Array System in Drug Discovery Using Acute and Cultured Hippocampal Slices -- Rhythm Generation in Spinal Cultures: Is It the Neuron or the Network? -- Monitoring the Clock Neuron's Tick: Circadian Rhythm Analysis Using a Multi-Electrode Array Dish -- Investigation of Network Phenomena in Hippocampal Slices Using Multi-Electrode Recording Arrays -- Exploring Fast Hippocampal Network Oscillations: Combining Multi-Electrode Recordings with Optical Imaging and Patch-Clamp Techniques. This book book is an attempt to review the recent progress in both electronics and computational tools developed to analyze the functional operations of large ensembles of neurons and to provide the readers with a sense of the applications made possible by these technological tools. While considerable progress has been made over the last decades in our understanding of electrophysiological processes at the single channel, single synapse, and single neuron levels, our understanding of electrophysiological processes at the neuronal network level is still in its infancy. This book includes: Technological overviews of multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) and related electronics and software, Applications of MEAs to study ensemble activity of dissociated cell cultures including cardiac myocytes, Applications of the technology for drug discovery using acute and cultured slices. Examples of studies directed at understanding the origins and functions of various rhythmic activities in neuronal ensembles.