Pre-incident communication and intelligence: linking the intelligence and medical communities -- Personal protective equipment -- Detection and measurement of chemical agents -- Recognizing covert exposure in a population -- Detection and measurement of biological agents -- Patient decontamination and mass triage -- Availability, safety, and efficacy of drugs and other therapies -- Prevention, assessment, and treatment of psychological effects -- Computer-related tools for training and operations -- Conclusions and recommendations. This book identifies the R&D efforts needed to implement recommendations in key areas: pre-incident intelligence, detection and identification of chemical and biological agents, protective clothing and equipment, early recognition that a population has been covertly exposed to a pathogen, mass casualty decontamination and triage, use of vaccines and pharmaceuticals, and the psychological effects of terror. Specific objectives for computer software development are also identified. This work addresses the differences between a biological and a chemical attack, the distinct challenges to the military and civilian medical communities, and other broader issues. It will be of critical interest to anyone involved in civilian preparedness for terrorist attack: planner, administrators, responders, medical professionals, public health and emergency personnel, and technology designers and engineers.