Back to Basics: Structure, Function, Evolution and Application of Homing Endonucleases and Inteins -- Homing Endonucleases and the Yeast Mitochondrial ? Locus - A Historical Perspective -- The LAGLIDADG Homing Endonuclease Family -- HNH Endonucleases -- GIY-YIG Homing Endonucleases - Beads on a String -- His-Cys Box Homing Endonucleases -- Group I Introns and Their Maturases: Uninvited, but Welcome Guests -- Group II Intron Homing Endonucleases: Ribonucleoprotein Complexes with Programmable Target Specificity -- Free-Standing Homing Endonucleases of T-even Phage: Freeloaders or Functionaries? -- Function and Evolution of HO and VDE Endonucleases in Fungi -- Engineering Homing Endonucleases for Genomic Applications -- Inteins - A Historical Perspective -- Origin and Evolution of Inteins and Other Hint Domains -- Biochemical Mechanisms of Intein-Mediated Protein Splicing -- The Structure and Function of Intein-Associated Homing Endonucleases -- Harnessing Inteins for Protein Purification and Characterization -- Production of Cyclic Proteins and Peptides -- Inteins for Split-Protein Reconstitutions and Their Applications -- Intein Reporter and Selection Systems -- Industrial Applications of Intein Technology. This book provides the first and only comprehensive description and detailed summary of the genetics, structure, function, mechanisms of action, evolution and engineering of homing endonucleases and inteins. These two unique protein superfamilies, which are tied together through their frequent fusion and coevolution, have generated considerable excitement for their fundamental, structural, and functional properties, their evolution as parasitic elements, and their widespread applications as gene targeting agents and as instruments for the generation of modified proteins and novel protein combinations.