Structure and Function -- Peptide Substrates of Dipeptidyl Peptidases -- Phosphorus-Containing Inhibitors of Proteolytic Enzymes -- Biochemical Properties of Recombinant Prolyl Dipeptidases DPP-IV and DPP8 -- Prediction of Dipeptidyl Peptidase (DP) 8 Structure by Homology Modelling -- Dpiv-Related Enzymes -- Structure and Function in Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV and Related Proteins -- Expression and Function of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV and Related Enzymes in Cancer -- DP8 and DP9 have Extra-Enzymatic Roles in Cell Adhesion, Migration and Apoptosis -- In Vivo Effects of a Potent, Selective Dppii Inhibitor -- Expression of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV-Like Enzymes in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells -- Dipeptidyl Peptidase 8 Has Post-Proline Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase and Prolyl Endopeptidase Activities -- Prolyl Endopeptidase Cleaves the Apoptosis Rescue Peptide Humanin and Exhibits an Unknown Post-Cysteine Cleavage Specificity -- Distribution of Dipeptidyl Peptidase Iv-Like Activity Enzymes in Canine and Porcine Tissue Sections by RT-PCR -- Metabolic Disorders -- Relative Contribution of Incretins to the Glucose Lowering Effect of DP IV Inhibitors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) -- Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV: A Molecular Switch of Vascular Actions of Neuropeptide Y -- Immune Disorders -- Dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPIV) and Alanyl-Aminopeptidases (AAPs) as a New Target Complex for Treatment of Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases-Proof of Concept in a Mouse Model of Colitis -- Dipeptidyl Peptidases and Inflammatory Bowel Disease -- Possible Role of DP IV Inhibitors in Acne Therapy -- Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Activity and/or Structure Homologs (DASH): Contributing Factors in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatic Diseases? -- Neuronal Diseases -- Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DP IV, CD26) and Aminopeptidase N (APN, CD13) as Regulators of T Cell Function and Targets of Immunotherapy in CNS Inflammation -- CD26/DP IV in T Cell Activation and Autoimmunity -- Cancer -- DPIV/CD26 and FAP in Cancer: A Tale of Contradictions -- Type-II Transmembrane Prolyl Dipeptidases and Matrix Metalloproteinases in Membrane Vesicles of Active Endothelial Cells -- Extra-Enzymatic Roles of DPIV and FAP in Cell Adhesion and Migration on Collagen and Fibronectin -- Role of Neuropeptide Y and Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV in Regulation of Ewing's Sarcoma Growth -- The Role of CD26/DPP IV in Preservation of Early Pulmonary Graft Function. Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidases exert a potent modulatory role at an interface between immune mechanisms, metabolic responses, and neuroendocrine pathways. Experimental models and clinical studies addressing the role of these enzymes and the effect of specific inhibitors pave the way to novel therapeutic concepts in immunology, rheumatology, oncology, reproductive medicine and diabetes. Leading experts in the field will contribute to this book, which will present a state-of-the-art view on these enzymes at a time when our understanding of their function is growing ever more rapidly and therapeutic options have become imminent. The sections of the book will focus on various topics including DP IV and related enzymes in: expression and function, metabolic disorders, immune mechanisms and immune disorders, neuronal diseases and cancer, and related drug development.