Signal Transduction in DC Differentiation: Winged Messengers and Achilles' Heel -- Shaping Naive and Memory Cd8+ T Cell Responses in Pathogen Infections Through Antigen Presentation -- Understanding the Role of Innate Immunity in the Mechanism of Action of the Live Attenuated Yellow Fever Vaccine 17D -- The Function of Local Lymphoid Tissues in Pulmonary Immune Responses -- The Yin and Yang of Adaptive Immunity in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Donor Antigen-Presenting Cells Can Either Augment or Inhibit Donor T Cell Alloreactivity -- It's Only Innate Immunity But I Like it -- Innate Tumor Immune Surveillance -- Regulation of Adaptive Immunity by Cells of the Innate Immune System: Bone Marrow Natural Killer Cells Inhibit T Cell Proliferation -- Induction and Maintenance of Cd8+ T Cells Specific for Persistent Viruses -- Germinal Center-Derived B Cell Memory -- CD28 and Cd27 Costimulation of Cd8+ T Cells: A Story of Survival -- CD38: An Ecto-Enzyme at the Crossroads of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses -- Vascular Leukocytes: a Population with Angiogenic and Immunossuppressive Properties Highly Represented in Ovarian Cancer -- CD4+ T Cells Cooperate With Macrophages for Specific Elimination of MHC Class II-Negative Cancer Cells -- Receptors and Pathways in Innate Antifungal Immunity. This compilation presents minireviews derived from work presented at the - gean Conference: "First Crossroads between Innate and Adaptive Immunity," which occurred October 9-14, 2005 at the Hilton Conference Center on the - land of Rhodes, Greece. The conference included sessions dedicated to host r- ognition of and response to pathogens, innate immune networks, antigen pres- tation, and adaptive immune responses, each headlined by a leading scientist at the forefront of that field. The intimate networking and interaction of dendritic cells, T cells, B cells, NK cells, NK-T cells, and complement during the host response to pathogens and tumors are only now starting to be elucidated. The respective fields that focus on these immune cells and molecules tend to exist in parallel worlds, with minimum exchange of information and ideas. The goal of this conference was to initiate crosstalk between these immunological fields, and to promote and facilitate discussion on the interactions between the innate - mune response and the adaptive immune response, and ultimately breed colla- ration between these areas of study. The "First Crossroads between Innate and Adaptive Immunity" Aegean Conference succeeded in bringing together and connecting scientists and experts from around the world to address critical areas of innate and adaptive immunity - something necessary for the development of more efficient scientific exchange and crosspollination between these fields.