In retrospect, FY 1991 may well prove to be a turning point for environmental enforcement. It was the year that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) moved from policy development to implementation of its Enforcement Four-Year Strategic Plan. During the past twelve months, the Agency has made major strides in integrating a cross-program/multi-media approach to its inspection and enforcement programs. By integrating a cross-program/multi-media perspective into all stages of the enforcement planning and decision-making, the Agency intends to achieve additional public health and environmental protection results, deterrence, and efficiency which could not be achieved through the use of traditional single-media approaches alone. EPAs commitment to cross-program/multi-media enforcement is one reflection of its greater emphasis on better integrating consideration of health and ecological risks into inspection targeting and case selection. While these concepts apply in single-medium cases as well, cross-program/multi-media enforcement is intended to result in comprehensive identification and remediation of problems at a facility. Cross-program/multi-media inspections also have the potential of better focusing senior management in the regulated community on the broad range of environmental compliance issues, better ensuring that they do not overlook significant environmental problems.