Federal environmental enforcement activity is proceeding at levels unmatched since the Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 to enhance the protection of human health and the environment from the risk resulting from environmental pollution. Since that time, EPA has referred 2,912 civil cases and 258 criminal cases to the Department of Justice (DOJ) for prosecution. In FYl984, EPA developed and instituted a number of management improvements to ensure that an effective and vigorous enforcement program was maintained. Since then, the Agency has referred to DOJ 1,545 civil cases (53% of all civil cases referred since the Agency's creation) and 212 criminal cases (82% of all criminal cases). In FY1988, EPA established new high-water marks for both Federal civil and criminal judicial enforcement activities with 372 civil cases and 59 criminal cases referred to DOJ.