Lemur Origins, History of Ecological Studies on Lemurs, and the Ecology of the Recently Extinct (Subfossil) Lemurs -- Origin of the Malagasy Strepsirhine Primates -- Notes on the History of Ecological Studies of Malagasy Lemurs -- Ecology and Extinction of Madagascar's Subfossil Lemurs -- The Evolution of Lemur Traits, Basic and Unusual Patterns -- Impact of Ecology on the Teeth of Extant Lemurs: A Review of Dental Adaptations, Function, and Life History -- Big Is Beautiful: Fat Storage and Hibernation as a Strategy to Cope with Marked Seasonality in the Fat-tailed Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) -- Polyspecific Associations of Crowned Lemurs and Sanford's Lemurs in Madagascar -- Cathemerality in Lemurs -- Adaptations in the Aye-aye: A Review -- Connecting Ecology and Adaptation: Summaries and New Studies -- Evolutionary Divergence in the Brown Lemur Species Complex -- Ecological Diversity and Seasonal Adaptations of Mouse Lemurs (Microcebus spp.) -- Social Pair-Bonding and Resource Defense in Wild Red-Bellied Lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer) -- Lemur catta Ecology: What We Know and What We Need to Know -- Impact of Seasonality and Reproduction on Social Structure, Ranging Patterns, and Fission-Fusion Social Organization in Red Ruffed Lemurs -- Ecologically Enigmatic Lemurs: The Sifakas of the Eastern Forests (Propithecus candidus, P. diadema, P. edwardsi, P. perrieri, and P. tattersalli) -- Behavioral and Ecological Adaptations in Two Small Folivorous Lemurs with Different Social Organization: Avabi and Lepilemur -- The Feeding Ecology and Related Adaptations of Indri indri -- Behavior and Ecology of Gentle Lemurs (Genus Hapalemur) -- Lemur Adaptations to a Changing Environment, Natural and Anthropogenic Stress -- Considering Climate Change Effects in Lemur Ecology and Conservation -- Diet Composition, Foraging, and Feeding Behavior in Relation to Habitat Disturbance: Implications for the Adaptability of Ruffed Lemurs (Varecia variegata editorium) in Manombo Forest, Madagascar -- Overview on the Health and Disease Ecology of Wild Lemurs: Conservation Implications. In this comprehensive volume, written by experts in the field, information gathered on lemur ecology and adaptation over the past 15 years is presented by both seasoned and newer lemur researchers, and provides us with further knowledge concerning both well-studied and rarely studied extant species, as well as insights into the ecology and adaptation of some of the recently extinct lemurs. With the dramatic increase in behavioral and ecological studies on a great variety of lemur species in the past few decades, our knowledge concerning the adaptation of these charming primates to Madagascar's unpredictable and sometimes harsh environmental conditions has improved significantly. Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptation will be a useful and fascinating source book for researchers and students of primate ecology.