Human Chromosomes: Structural and Functional Aspects -- DNA Lesions Induced by Ionizing Radiation -- Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on DNA -- Double Strand Break Repair Mechanisms in Mammalian Cells -- Backup Pathways of Nonhomologous End Joining May Have a Dominant Role in the Formation of Chromosome Aberrations -- Targeted and Non-Targeted Induction of Chromosomal Rearrangements After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation -- DNA Methylation Damage: Formation, Repair and Biological Consequences -- Adducts, Sister-Chromatid Exchanges and Mutations Following Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure: a Review of Quantitative Data Followed by Some Considerations Regarding Risk -- Analysis of DNA Double-Strand Breaks by Means of ?-H2AX Foci -- Comet Assay -- Origin of Chromosome Aberrations: Mechanisms -- Chromatin Structure and the Formation of Chromosomal Alterations -- Role of Chromatin Structure and Activity in the Induction of Chromosomal Aberrations -- A Biomedical Perspective of Telomere Structure and Function -- Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Assay: a Comprehensive "Cytome" Approach for Measuring Chromosomal Instability, Mitotic Dysfunction and Cell Death Simultaneously in One Assay -- In Vivo Rodent Micronucleus Assay -- Sister-Chromatid Exchanges -- Fluorescence in Situ Hybridisation -- The CAB and S&S Systems, and an Approach Towards the Classification of Complex Chromosome Exchanges -- Aberration Patterns and Cell Cycle Progression Following Exposure of Lymphocytes to the Alkylating Agent Trenimon -- Cytogenetic Analysis and Occupational Health -- Biological Dosimetry -- Statistical Methods for Biological Dosimetry -- Retrospective Biological Dosimetry by FISH -- Chromosomal Aberrations in Astronauts -- Internet Information System and Literature Database on Biomedical Activities of Electromagnetic Fields: Cancer and Cytogenetic Effects -- Interpreting Studies on Magnetic Fields and the Risk of Childhood Leukaemia: an Ongoing Challenge -- Cytogenetic and Carcinogenic Effects of Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation -- Radiofrequency Radiation and Replication Studies -- Chromosome Analysis in Cancer Patients: Applications and Limitations -- Chromosomal Aberration in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Healthy Subjects and Risk of Cancer. Cytogenetics is a very important research tool in basic and applied research. The uses of cytogenetics in human-population monitoring, in biological dosimetry in radiation accidents and in astronauts and as a predictive measure of cancer are topics discussed in this book. The book will help the reader to better understand cytogenetics and the intricacies of the methodology. The different methods of fluorescence in situ hybridization are discussed and the results achieved are presented. The book provides a comprehensive review of basic and applied aspects of cytogenetics and therefore will be of interest to all who are interested in chromosomes and their alterations by different types of mutagens, including chemical mutagens and ionizing and nonionizing radiation, with special reference to electromagnetic fields.