Lessons learnt and anticipated benefits -- Executive summary -- Report of the working-group meeting -- Review of previous applications of genetics to vector control -- Genomics and expected benefits for vector entomology -- Current state and future needs of laboratory and field science -- Genetic approaches for malaria control -- Current thoughts about the integration of field and laboratory sciences in genetic control of disease vectors -- Genetic approaches in Aedes aegypti for control of dengue: an overview -- Regional situation reports: malaria and dengue -- Malaria and dengue vector biology and control in West and Central Africa -- Malaria and dengue vector biology and control in Southern and Eastern Africa -- Malaria and dengue vector biology and control in Southeast Asia -- Malaria and dengue vector biology and control in Latin America -- Integration -- Transition from the laboratory to the field and effective interplay -- Evaluation of drive mechanisms (including transgenes and drivers) in different environmental conditions and genetic backgrounds -- Tools for monitoring the genetic structure and stability of mosquito populations -- What are relevant assays for refractoriness? -- Fitness studies: developing a consensus methodology -- Mosquito mating behaviour -- Pathogen evolution issues in genetically modified mosquito vector strategies -- Models to investigate some issues regarding the feasibility of driving refractoriness genes into mosquito vector populations -- Identification and characterization of field sites for genetic control of disease vectors -- Application of genetically modified mosquitoes in national vector control programmes: thoughts on integrated control -- Entomological correlates of epidemiological impacts: how do we know it is working? -- Ethical, legal and social issues in the use of genetically modified vectors for disease control. Contemporary research on genetic control of disease-transmitting insects knows two kinds of scientists: those that work in the laboratory and those known as 'field people'. Over the last decade, both groups seem to have developed differing research priorities, address fundamentally different aspects within the overall discipline of infectious-disease control, and worse, have developed a scientific 'language' that is no longer understood by the 'other' party. This gap widens every day, between the North and the South, between ecologists and molecular biologists, geneticists and behaviourists, etc. The need to develop a common research agenda that bridges this gap has been identified as a top priority by all parties involved. Only then shall the goal of developing appropriate genetic-control strategies for vectors of disease become reality. This book is the reflection of a workshop, held in Nairobi (Kenya) in July 2004. It brought together a good representation of both molecular and ecological research and, for the first time, included a significant number of researchers from disease-endemic countries.