Beginnings of institutionalized animal experimentation: nineteenth-century highlights -- Current attitudes and ethical arguments -- Major issues -- Legislation and the growth of protagonist organizations -- Animal subjects and alternatives -- Protocol review -- Community members on animal review committees -- Animal pain scales in public policy: an international perspective -- Pain, suffering, and death: warm- and cold-blooded vertebrates, mollusks, and insects -- Testing -- From sunshine laws and civil disobedience to raids -- Use of animals in education -- Source of laboratory dogs and cats: pound versus purpose-bred animals -- Editorial responsibilities and issues -- Looking ahead -- Animals used in experimentation, FY 1973-1990 -- Funding sources for targeted programs to promote alternatives -- Sunshine laws. Few arguments in biomedical experimentation have stirred such heated debate in recent years as those raised by animal research. In this comprehensive analysis of the social, political, and ethical conflicts surrounding the use of animals in scientific experiments, Barbara Orlans judges both ends of the spectrum in this debate - unconditional approval or rejection of animal experimentation - to be untenable. Instead of arguing for either view, she thoughtfully explores the ground between the extremes, and convincingly makes the case for public policy reforms that serve to improve the welfare of laboratory animals without jeopardizing scientific endeavor. This book presents controversial issues in a balanced manner based on careful historical analysis and original research. Different mechanisms of oversight for animal experiments are compared and those that have worked well are identified. This compelling work will be of interest to biomedical scientists ethicists, animal welfare advocates and other readers concerned with this critical issue.