The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's AMS Center conducts third-party performance testing of commercially available technologies that detect or monitor natural species or contaminants in air, water, and soil. Stakeholder committees of buyers and users of such technologies recommend technology categories, and technologies within those categories, as priorities for testing. Hydrogen sulfide analyzers were identified as a priority technology category through the AMS Center stakeholder process. Hydrogen sulfide is formed at animal feeding operations (AFOs) during the bacterial decomposition of sulfur-containing organic compounds present in manure produced by livestock. Also known as sewer gas, H(sub 2)S has the characteristic odor of rotten eggs and, at high levels, can cause death from even brief exposure. Ambient H(sub 2)2S concentrations at swine farms, for example, are expected to range from sub-part per billion (ppb) concentrations to 100 ppb or more. Ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also produced from bacterial processing of livestock waste and are likely to be present in significant concentrations at AFOs. The National Academy of Sciences 2003 report, 'Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations,' identified the need for need for improved methods for measuring and estimating air emissions from animal feeding operations (AFO), including emissions of H(sub 2)S. The analytical approach of the H(sub 2)S analyzers that will be evaluated in this verification test has been identified for use in the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study Protocol that will be used to conduct measurements of emissions from AFOs as directed by the U.S. EPA Animal Feeding Operations Consent Agreement. The data collected as a result of the monitoring study will be used to ensure compliance of AFOs with applicable provisions of the Clean Air Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Environmental Planning
and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and to promote a national consensus on methods for estimating AFO emissions. In addition to this federal effort, several states, including Iowa, California, and North Carolina, have developed or are developing standards for ambient H2S.