||National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Industrial Competitiveness and Environmental Protection.; National Risk Management Research Lab., Ada, OK.; National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Corvallis, OR. Western Ecology Div.
The goal of this report is to synthesize the existing scientific literature on the effectiveness of best management practices (BMP) and low impact development (LID) to improve water quality through their ability to process and remove excess anthropogenic phosphorous (P) from surface and ground waters. In urban settings, BMPs and LIDs are land development approaches that attempt to mimic natural systems in order to provide green space or to manage stormwater in urban or suburban environments (Passeport et al. 2013). In agricultural settings BMPs are primarily focused on incorporating natural features such as grass strips, riparian areas and wetlands to intercept runoff from the cultivated or agricultural managed areas as a means of attenuating anthropogenically derived nutrients and sediments. Specific techniques include, but are not limited to, constructing wetlands, green roofs, bioretention cells, planting riparian zones, restoring streams, and installing permeable pavement systems. BMPs and LIDs often are employed as nutrient management tools by resource management agencies by designing features that are intended to decrease the volume of stormwater runoff to drainage systems and streams by intercepting water, increasing infiltration, and/or disconnecting impervious surfaces from conventional stormwater networks.