The Structure and Function of Xylem in Seed-Free Vascular Plants: An Evolutionary Perspective -- The Hydraulic Architecture of Conifers -- Development, Structure and Function of Torus-Margo Pits in Conifers, Ginkgo and Dicots -- The Hydraulic Architecture of Populus -- Grapevine Xylem Development, Architecture and Function -- Lianas as Structural Parasites -- Integrative Xylem Analysis of Chaparral Shrubs -- The Role of Xylem Parenchyma in the Storage and Utilization of Non-Structural Carbohydrates -- Wood Anatomy and Plant Hydraulics in a Changing Climate -- The Anatomical Determinants of Leaf Hydraulic Function. This book analyzes what is currently known about functional and ecological xylem anatomy. In addition to serving as a source of information to professionals, instructors, and advanced students in plant science and forestry, the inherent beauty of xylem that is apparent in many images will be a source of inspiration to readers who are not yet familiar with the topic. This work offers a unique combination of scientific insight based on thorough experimental work and beautiful images, which often speak for themselves. The beauty of xylem is evident at different scales; from views of striking tree ring patterns and vascular networks in fern fronds, conifer needles, and angiosperm leaves, to microscopic images of developing pits. Functional and Ecological Xylem Anatomy not only serves as a source of information, but also of inspiration.