Plastid Origin and Development -- The Diversity of Plastid Form and Function -- Chloroplast Development: Whence and Whither -- Protein Import Into Chloroplasts: Who, When, and How? -- Origin and Evolution of Plastids: Genomic View on the Unification and Diversity of Plastids -- The Mechanism of Plastid Division: The Structure and Origin of The Plastid Division Apparatus -- The Plastid Genome and its Interaction with the Nuclear Genome -- Expression, Prediction and Function of the Thylakoid Proteome in Higher Plants and Green Algae -- The Role of Nucleus- and Chloroplast-Encoded Factors in the Synthesis of the Photosynthetic Apparatus -- Plastid Transcription: Competition, Regulation and Promotion by Plastid- and Nuclear-Encoded Polymerases -- Plastid-to-Nucleus Signaling -- Trace Metal Utilization in Chloroplasts -- Photosynthetic Metabolism in Plastids -- Light/Dark Regulation of Chloroplast Metabolism -- Chlororespiratory Pathways and Their Physiological Significance -- CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms -- Synthesis, Export and Partitioning of the End Products of Photosynthesis -- Non-Photosynthetic Metabolism in Plastids -- Chlorophyll Synthesis -- Carotenoids -- Lipid Synthesis, Metabolism and Transport -- Amino Acid Synthesis in Plastids -- Sulfur Metabolism in Plastids -- Regulation and Role of Calcium Fluxes in the Chloroplast -- Plastid Differentiation and Response to Environmental Factors -- The Role of Plastids in Ripening Fruits -- Fate and Activities of Plastids During Leaf Senescence -- The Kleptoplast -- The Apicoplast -- The Role of Plastids in Gravitropism -- Chloroplast Movements in Response to Environmental Signals -- Oxygen Metabolism and Stress Physiology. This volume provides a comprehensive look at the biology of plastids, the multifunctional biosynthetic factories that are unique to plants and algae. Fifty-six international experts have contributed 28 chapters that cover all aspects of this large and diverse family of plant and algal organelles. The book is divided into five sections: (I): Plastid Origin and Development; (II): The Plastid Genome and Its Interaction with the Nuclear Genome; (III): Photosynthetic Metabolism in Plastids; (IV): Non-Photosynthetic Metabolism in Plastids; (V): Plastid Differentiation and Response to Environmental Factors. Each chapter includes an integrated view of plant biology from the standpoint of the plastid. The book is intended for a wide audience, but is specifically designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and scientists in the fields of photosynthesis, biochemistry, molecular biology, physiology, and plant biology.