Sustainable silvicultural practices are required to ensure an uninterrupted and affordable flow of goods and services from the Earth's 4,070 million hectares of forests. Demographic and environmental pressures have altered the status and development of boreal, temperate, and tropical forest biomes. A relatively small proportion of primary or secondary forests are routinely managed on a sustainable basis. Forestation of harvested stands, degraded or abandoned lands, and other sites in boreal, temperate and tropical systems range from 10-15 million hectares annually. The cost of natural and artificial forestation range from $30-2500/hectare, depending on site condition and preparation, size/quality of seeds, seedlings or advanced regeneration, and juvenile plantation protection requirements. Intermediate silvicultural practices such as thinning, fertilization, drainage, or irrigation range in cost from $5-500/hectare. Protection of forests from fire, insects, and disease range from $<1-50/hectare. Financial analyses of silvicultural practices reveal that these forest systems can be managed profitably. Case studies of selected forest management investments in representative countries reveal an internal rate of return of 5-35%. Sustained management of global forest will probably not increase significantly without policy changes to stimulate positive national action and create incentives for local populations.