Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog


OLS Field Name OLS Field Data
Main Title Replacement of hazardous material in wide web flexographic printing process : project summary /
Author Kranz, Paul B.
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Williamson, Thomas R.
Randall, Paul M.
Williamson III, Thomas R.
Publisher U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Center for Environmental Research Information,
Year Published 1993
Report Number EPA/600/SR-93/150; EPA/600-SR-93-149
OCLC Number 31424262
Subjects Printing ink--Environmental aspects. ; Flexography--Environmental aspects.
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EJBD ARCHIVE EPA 600-SR-93-149 In Binder Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 03/29/2018
EJBD  EPA 600-SR-93-149 In Binder Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 10/25/2018
ELBD  EPA 600-SR-93-149 AWBERC Library/Cincinnati,OH 12/18/1998
EMBD  EPA/600/SR-93/149 NRMRL/GWERD Library/Ada,OK 12/28/2001
Collation 4 pages ; 28 cm.
Caption title. "EPA/600-SR-93-149." "October 1993."
Contents Notes
The study summarized here evaluated, on a technical and economic basis, the effect of substituting water-based inks for solvent-based inks in a flexographic printing process. To reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by switching from the use of solvent-based inks to water-based inks, several equipment modifications and a feedstock substitution were completed: dryer capacity enhancement, press roller modification, ink handling equipment upgrade and installation of an in-line corona treatment system. Water-based inks containing 72.5% less VOC were used in lieu of, and in conjunction with, traditional solvent-based inks. The ink substitution reduced the emissions generated from the printing process. For each percent increase in water-based ink use, VOC emissions were reduced 14 lb. This was based on usage of about 2250 lb of solvent-based ink/wk, which caused a VOC emission of about 1570 lb. Typically, the substitution did not adversely affect product quality or non-hazardous scrap waste generation. The average reduction of 95% of liquid F003 waste from waste ink and cleaning solvents recorded during the study period resulted from operational practice changes and employee training. To complete the economic evaluation, the costs of press modifications, ancillary equipment, waste disposal, inks, and solvent were obtained. A payback period and project net present value were calculated. The project has a positive net present value of $39,165 and a payback period of 2.5 yr, based on 21% utilization of water-based ink. If full conversion to water-based inks is implemented, the payback period is theoretically reduced to 0.54 yr. Additional benefits from reduced VOC emissions and liquid hazardous waste have been an improved working environment: reduced indoor air pollutants, reduced handling of hazardous solvents by employees, and the appreciation by company employees of the need to make a conscious effort to further reduce waste generation.